Family members of those who died when the Polish presidential plane crashed have held a memorial ceremony one year on.
Poland’s first lady led the mourners at Smolensk in western Russia.
Ninety-six people died when the aircraft came down in thick fog — among them the then president Lech Kaczinski, his wife, and dozens of high-ranking politicians and military officers.
They had been going to mark the anniversary of the massacre of Polish prisoners by Stalin’s Red Army in Katyn.
The massacre seven decades ago has been a major source of friction between the two countries, but an outpouring of solidarity from Russians after last year’s plane disaster led to a warming in relations.
Nevertheless there is still discontent in Poland over Russia’s crash investigation.