Every summit draws its critics, and this NATO meeting was no exception. Campaigners gathered from across Europe to denounce the war in Afghanistan and to warn of other conflicts to come.
Security was tight in the Portuguese capital, with dozens of people prevented from even entering the country for fear of potential violence. The summit itself was virtually sealed off to keep demonstrators away. But, police said most of the protests were peaceful and good-natured, with campaigners preferring to use graphic imagery to illustrate their fears.
However, police were forced into action, making more than 40 arrests for civil disobedience when protesters blocked a road leading to the summit venue.
One demonstrator made his feelings clear as he was being arrested: “NATO is continuing a system of oppression and war throughout the world, a system that requires war to safeguard its capitalist needs,” he said.
There were sporadic clashes with police, but there was nothing like the violence seen in April last year when hundreds of demonstrators rioted in the French city of Strasbourg, setting fire to buildings as NATO marked its 60th anniversary.