Thousands of Poles and a large number of second world war veterans have been marking the 65th anniversary of the Warsaw Uprising.
It was a heroic but doomed battle in 1944 against Nazi Germany that lasted 63 days.
Of the 32,000 Polish insurgents who survived the uprising, about three-and-a-half thousand are still alive today.
Most of them were less than 20 years of age in 1944.
The civilian population also took heavy losses. Some 200,000 people were massacred and half a million survivors deported.
Thousands of Polish soldiers died in the battle that ended when the Red Army marched into the ruined city, systematically destroyed by the Nazis.