There were more signs of resistance to Russia’s government in separate opposition demonstrations in Moscow and St Petersburg on Sunday.
The rallies were broken up by police who outnumbered protestors.
Some reports say more than 150 arrests were made as marchers, who were banned from demonstrating, went ahead anyway.
“I came here to say people in my country are free, that everyone, from Vladimir Putin to homeless people, should obey the law, that the law is the same for everyone,” said one marcher.
Even peaceful protestors, who came to read national poet Pushkin in public, were hauled away for detention.
The economic crisis and controversial constitutional reforms have angered some sections of society, and the Kremlin admits it will have to trim some social programmes next year as revenues fall due to low energy prices.
Resistance is clearly widening as a few dozen elderly ex-officers were also seen marching in protest. Russians were presented with the incongruous sight of seeing war heroes carted off by the police. Normally in such situations people are held for a few hours and fined.