Train, underground and bus services came to a halt in Italy for most of the day as staff went on strike over pay and working conditions.
Athough some commuters and tourists waited in the hope a limited service would be running, bus and train drivers said the walk-out was only due to eased for the evening rush-hour.
“Is there a strike today?” asked one Spanish tourist. “No one told us the underground wasn’t working, we’ll try and take the bus to St Peter’s instead.”
One woman added: “It’s a bit inconvenient, if the trains, metro and buses aren’t working, you have to walk.”
Unions are re-negotiating general contracts for more than 250,000 employees. A series of strikes have been called for July, with airport workers due to down tools later this month.
Railway workers went on a 24-hour strike on Sunday evening whereas local transport workers walked out on Monday morning. The strike was expected to cost the transport system around 350,000 euros.